Open Access Data and the Publishing Industry


As Open Access (OA) has continued to evolve — the form it is taking is not homogenous, neither in terms of geography nor research discipline. During this time, publishers have worked to rapidly expand opportunities to publish OA by providing new pathways to publish OA, developing new business models, and by facilitating other collaborations and initiatives that support Open Science.


Key takeaways & trends in the data

Evident in the data collected is that significant progress is being made, year over year, toward full Open Access.  The charts provided in this dashboard illustrate that it is gold OA that is enabling this progress across global regions, top article-producing countries/regions, disciplines, and publications based on research funded by the top global funders.   This dashboard also demonstrates a significant increase in the opportunity for an author to choose gold OA.

  • In 2023, 38% of all global journal articles, reviews and conference papers were published as immediately available, freely accessible, Version of Record The final and most authoritative fixed version of a journal article that has been made available by any organisation that acts as a publisher by formally and definitively declaring the article “published”. Publishers take responsibility for this article version, and it is the article version the author as a scientist will be measured against, that will display corrections and that permanently enters the “record of science” for posterity. via gold OA. 

  • An additional 10% were made freely accessible, though not necessarily as a Version of Record, by subscription- or revenue-supported types of OA known as green and bronze. This comprises 5% made available in repositories either as an earlier version of the article (known as an Accepted Manuscript A version of an article that has been accepted for publication in a journal generally following peer review. The publisher typically provides infrastructures and services to support the editors and reviewers in the peer review process and may tag or enrich the Manuscript to facilitate review. The content and layout follow publisher’s submission requirements. This term can be confused with Pre-print.) or a Version of Record under what is commonly referred to green OA. A further 5% were made available as free-to-read on a publisher’s website by what is known as bronze OA.

  • In 2023, authors had the option to make an article gold OA in 79% of cases globally.
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